By now every big or small organization leverages cloud at some level- be it public (including multi-cloud) or hybrid (public & private) so it is the need of the hour to have a simpler yet comprehensive management & governance platform for managing infrastructure from all the sources be it Azure, other Cloud providers or on-prem.
Microsoft has been continuously improving the control plane of Azure which is responsible for managing the lifecycle of resources such as virtual machines, database instances and Kubernetes clusters. Technically, control plane is called the Azure Fabric Controller. Each time a resource is provisioned, scaled, stopped, or terminated; the operation goes through the Fabric Controller.
In between the fabric controller and the resources, there is another layer called the Azure Resource Manager (ARM) that automates the resource lifecycle. Microsoft has built resource providers for each of the services running within Azure. Download here.