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Invisible Autonomous Intelligence and the impact on future healthcare systems

Atul Kurani
November 14, 2023

In an age where technology continually reshapes our lives, one of the most ground-breaking transformations is occurring in the field of MedTech. The emergence of invisible autonomous intelligence, harnessed through the process of data-powered innovation, is revolutionizing the healthcare landscape. This blend of cutting-edge technology and healthcare expertise can redefine patient care, diagnostics, treatment, and research. In this blog, we explore the trends, aspects of generative AI, and examples within this fascinating area.

Understanding Invisible Autonomous Intelligence:

Invisible autonomous intelligence driven by data-powered innovation in MedTech can be considered an amalgamation of primarily three new age technologies:

  1. Invisible Artificial Intelligence: It refers to the integration of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) technologies into medical technology solutions in a way that they operate autonomously and without requiring direct human intervention. These AI-based systems work seamlessly in the background, calculating decisions and carrying out tasks with limited interventions from clinicians or surgeons. This is where generative AI (Gen AI), a subset of AI intelligence, plays a significant role in shaping solutions. Gen AI refers to algorithms that can create new content, such as images, text, or even entire data sets, based on patterns and examples from existing data sets. This enables such systems to evolve over time and adapt to new and changing situations and environments while ensuring the safe delivery of diagnosis and treatment. By harnessing Gen AI, the MedTech industry has the opportunity to enhance diagnostic capabilities, improve treatment personalization, advance research, and ultimately drive better patient outcomes while maintaining a strong focus on safety and regulatory compliance.
  2. Power of Data: At the heart of the transformation lies the exponential growth of data. Medical devices, electronic health records, wearable sensors, clinical trials, and countless other sources generate vast amounts of information. This data, when channelled effectively, provides unparalleled insights for medical practitioners, researchers, and policymakers. Invisible autonomous intelligence operates as the linchpin, dissecting and interpreting data at speeds and scale previously deemed impossible.
  3. Coupled with Medical technology: Gen AI spans across technologies, including robotics, sensors, software algorithms, devices, and other solutions. These are leveraged to design medical devices in areas like SAMD, wearables, imaging technologies, etc., to extract meaningful data and improve healthcare delivery, diagnosis, treatment, and patient monitoring. This transformation signals a shift toward an intelligent healthcare industry.

The Fusion of Technology and Medical Expertise:

In summary, “invisible autonomous intelligence driven by data-powered innovation in MedTech” can be referred to as an integration of AI and ML technologies that operate autonomously, driven by data, within the field of medical technology. These technologies could innovate healthcare and boost patient outcomes by operating autonomously. Generative AI’s ability to create new and diverse data based on existing information aligns well with the goal of invisible autonomous intelligence in data-powered innovation.

Where can we see this being applied today:

  • Example of one notable step in this direction has been the application of AI and computer vision within surgery technology to augment certain features and skills such as, suturing and knot tying. The Smart Tissue Autonomous Robot (STAR) from the Johns Hopkins University has demonstrated that it can outperform human surgeons in some surgical procedures, such as, bowel anastomosis in animal studies. Though a fully autonomous robotic surgeon remains a concept for the not-so-near future but steps toward the development of a robot that has performed laparoscopic surgery on the soft tissue of an animal without the guiding hand of a human is a step in that direction. This was possible due to the high level of repetition and precision required for such surgical procedures, which STAR could possibly perform with more accuracy and precision than a surgeon. It is expected to improve over time with data from various surgeries, leveraging the power of Gen AI. It can adjust the surgical plan in real-time, and adapting it to changing conditions during surgery.
  • In medical imaging, Gen AI can improve image quality, denoise scans, and generate images from various angles. This can aid in diagnosis, treatment planning, surgery, and education.
  • There are the other use cases like the AI-powered chatbots or virtual assistants that provide patients with personalized health information and treatment plans. Plus, answer questions, and offer guidance on managing their conditions, thus improving patient engagement and adherence to treatment plans. Using Gen AI, patient data can be analyzed, including medical records, genetics, and treatment outcomes, to create personalized treatment plans. These plans have the capability to adapt over time based on new data inputs, with the potential to optimize patient care.
  • In drug discovery, AI algorithms can now analyze extensive genomic, proteomic, and chemical data to predict potential drug candidates. This could accelerate the drug discovery process and lead to more effective treatments for various diseases. In the field of drug discovery, Gen AI is transforming the way new molecules are designed. AI models can understand molecular structure interactions to generate promising novel drug candidates for more effective disease treatment. This significantly accelerates the drug development process.
  • In personalized medicine, the era of generalized treatments is gradually making way for precision medicine. Invisible autonomous intelligence fuels this shift, allowing medical professionals to tailor therapies to an individual’s unique genetic makeup, physiological responses, and lifestyle. This personalization minimizes adverse effects and maximizes treatment efficacy. AI algorithms today can assist in designing custom prosthetics or implants tailored to an individual’s anatomy. By analyzing medical images and other data, AI can generate designs that optimize fit and functionality for a patient with minimal intervention from surgeons.
  • Gen AI can also simulate virtual patients with a range of conditions, allowing healthcare professionals to practice and refine their skills in a safe and controlled environment. This is particularly valuable in medical training and education. Gen AI can be used to create patient-specific models for simulations, treatment planning, and predicting disease progression. This enhances the accuracy of predictions by accounting for individual variations.

Challenges and Considerations

Invisible autonomous intelligence holds great potential but also poses challenges, including data requirements, bias, ethics, and ensuring content accuracy and clinical safety. Collaboration among AI researchers, medical professionals, and regulators is essential for balancing benefits, patient safety, and compliance.

Autonomous components must be transparent and verifiable, as they can make independent decisions without human approval. Transparency allows us to review decisions, while verification confirms system behavior accuracy using various techniques. If an autonomous system is not amenable to examination and verification, then assurance and oversight are challenging. An autonomous system makes its own independent decisions. We must ensure it aligns with surgeons or clinicians’ decisions in any situation. We need to plan its response to unexpected behavior in its environment.

With rapid technological progress, a fully autonomous surgical robot may soon become a reality. The performance of such a system may prove superior to human surgeons, bringing improvements in patient care and outcomes. However, with decision-making shifted away from the human surgeon and towards the robotic system, how do you address liability if harm comes to the patient? These issues will need to be addressed as these systems mature and go through future animal/clinical trial phases.

The Evolving Regulatory Landscape

Invisible autonomous intelligent systems can be used for both diagnosis and treatment in the healthcare industry. Currently, there are no established regulatory aspects specifically defined for invisible autonomous AI systems for both diagnosis and treatment. However, regulatory bodies like the FDA and MDR have identified the need for specific regulations for continuously learning autonomous AI systems and are currently working to develop regulations..

The Road to Full Autonomy

Various levels of autonomy are being defined, from no autonomy to serving as an assistant for specific tasks. At the highest level, it is akin to effectively replacing a clinician or surgeon for various tasks. As the level of autonomy in these devices increases, the regulatory challenges will also change. In the United States, robotic-assisted devices undergo FDA review and clearance through the 510(k) premarket notification process.

Future highly autonomous medical robots may fall into the high-risk Class 3 category, necessitating the strictest PMA regulatory pathway. At the highest autonomy levels (Level 5, and possibly Level 4 with full autonomy), the robot serves as both a medical device and a medical practitioner. The FDA regulates medical devices but not the practice of medicine, which is left to the medical societies. Handling such a situation would therefore be challenging and may require the certification of a medical establishment to certify the safety of a surgical robot system in such cases.

However, invisible autonomous intelligence, driven by data-powered innovation in MedTech, is promising considering the significant impact the MedTech industry will have in improving patient care, enhancing diagnostics and treatment, optimizing processes, reducing the cost of care, and advancing medical research and development. Over the years, challenges of verification and validation of such systems are expected to be addressed, involving all aspects of managing the huge amounts of data, sensors, and intelligent algorithms. This includes aspects like privacy, security, safety, reliability, and quality requirements on a real-time basis as the systems evolve, collecting real-world evidence and correcting themselves with these data points. This is where GenAI’s power must be harnessed ethically, ensuring responsible development and use of the technology. This means taking a safe, secure, humane, and environmentally friendly approach to AI.


Invisible autonomous intelligence, driven by data-powered innovation, is reshaping the MedTech landscape. Trends like data-driven decision-making and personalized medicine are pushing the boundaries of patient care, while Gen AI is unlocking new avenues in medical analysis and research. As technology and healthcare align, the future could offer more accurate diagnoses, focused treatments, and improved global health outcomes with cost-efficiency.

About the author

Senior Director | India


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